The canton Talamanca has two indigenous reserves “Reserva Indígena Bribrí de Talamanca” (8,500 inhabitants) and “Reserva Indígena de Cabécar de Talamanca” (3,500 inhabitants). Both are administrated by the local governments ADITIBRI (Bribrí) and ADITICA (Cabécar).
The canton Talamanca has an area of 2,809.93 km² montains, 28 km² valleys, 426 km² hills and 56 km² coast. The canton comprises 9 of 12 living zones, which exist in the tropics (classification by holdridge). It trends from the coast up to 3,800 m upcountry (Chirripó). This explains the high biodiversity in Talamanca: 60 percents of all species of animals (560 species of birds, 215 species of mammals and 250 species of amphibians) can be found in this region. Nature reserves make up 78 percent of the area.